Somaliland elections take place within the framework of a multi-party system introduced by the 2001 Constitution.
The Somaliland election cycle comprises the followings;
- Legal framework
- Voter education campaign
- Update of national voter registration database before every election
- Exhibition of the national voters’ Lists for
- Distribution of voter cards
- Nomination of candidates
- Campaign period
- Training of election staff
- Planning election operations &logistics
- Accreditation of party agents, media , domestic and international observers
- Election day
- Counting and declaration of provisional results
- Declaration of final results
- Review of election codes of conduct
- Electoral reforms
Somaliland’s political structure
According to Article 37 – subsection 2 of the Somaliland Constitution (2001) “the structure of the state shall consist of three branches which are:
- The legislatureconsist two chambers – Upper House (Guurti/Elders) and Lower House (Representatives) with 82 members for each house.
- The executive is led by the President and Vice President and
- The judiciary.
House of Representatives (HoR)& Local Councilors electoral system is proportional electoral system with an open list;-
- Multi-member district (MMD)system
- Six electoral regions and 23 electoral districts
- Each party provides a list of candidates for each region (HoR elections) and each district ( Local council elections)
- Citizens vote for a candidate chosen from one of those lists
- Candidates in the parties’ list get seats in order of votes received for each candidate
- Multiple winners from each region (HoR) and each district ( Local council election)
- Seats are allocated to parties proportionally (Each party/association receives the same percentage of seats as the percentage of votes received)
- Each region has specific seats, candidates contest throughout the region and each district has specific seats dependent on the grade (Capital city 25 seats, Grade A = 21 seats, Grade B = 17 seats, Grade C = 13 seats and Grad D = nine seats).
- The terms of office of all elected offices holders are fixed by the Constitution, as five years.
The presidential election is a first-past-the-post (FPTP) system in which the winning candidate is the one with the most votes. The President and the Vice-President are elected jointly.
Political Party System
According to the Constitution, the political party system is a democratic, peaceful, multi-party system, in which the President and Vice President run on a joint ticket. Parliamentary and district councils are directly elected by registered voters through secret ballot every five years.
According to the article 9 (2) of Somaliland Constitution (2001) “The number of political parties in the Republic of Somaliland shall not exceed three” (More details look Law No 14/2000 ( as amended in 2011).